In Vietnam, coffee is cultivated on a small area, export output and domestic consumption are also huge, but in general there are 4 main types of fresh coffee beans, each with a different coffee type. different characteristics not only biologically but also in terms of taste and aroma.
- Robusta coffee beans.
Robusta coffee beans (commonly known as Voi coffee) is the most popular coffee in the world, not only in Vietnam, this type of coffee accounts for 1/3 of coffee production worldwide. In Vietnam, Robusta coffee is especially suitable for the climate and soil of the Central Highlands because this coffee is suitable for rich basaltic red soil, 800-1000m above sea level, so it becomes a type of coffee. has the largest production in the country, accounting for 90% of the output.
Robusta coffee has a mild aroma, bitter taste, not sour, high caffeine content, coffee water when brewed has a brown color. But the most characteristic of this coffee is the bitter taste, because the preliminary processing of this bean does not require fermentation, but uses a direct drying method, retaining a richer and more intense bitterness than other types of coffee beans. Because of this, this coffee is less popular in the European market because it is too bitter and passionate.
Robusta coffee beans are divided into two different varieties:
- Robusta coffee beans (also known as purebred Robusta) have small beans but have a firm and heavy texture, the taste of Robusta coffee is also very rich, the more intense the taste, the less popular it is because it is only for those who has a special taste in coffee.
- High-yield Robusta coffee beans are Robusta coffees that have been domesticated after generations of crossbreeding for higher productivity and better resistance to pests. However, the taste of high-yielding Robusta coffee is less intense and passionate, so this coffee line is often grown in mass to supply instant coffee companies.
In general, Robusta is a type of coffee with high yield, low price, easy to cultivate, and is purchased by many coffee businesses, so Robusta has gradually become a popular coffee, serving the coffee needs of the majority. enjoyment person.
- Arabica coffee beans.
Arabica coffee beans (commonly known as tea coffee), are one of the two most popular types of coffee in the world, but Arabica is a coffee variety that is considered to be better and rarer. Arabica coffee is rare because it is not easy to grow this type of coffee, the land where Arabica coffee is grown must ensure factors such as: about 1,500m high, a cool temperate climate all year round, the maximum temperature of the year does not exceed 330C, The minimum temperature in the year is 50C. Because of this difficulty, Arabica coffee is only relatively empty in Vietnam, not mass-produced like Robusta coffee.
But Arabica coffee is extremely valuable, it is the main type of coffee of most coffee companies, famous coffee brands in the world and is a coffee only for those who know coffee, enjoy coffee in a stylish way. . Coffee culture of European and American countries especially likes this type of coffee.
The preliminary processing of Arabica coffee needs to undergo fermentation by soaking in water to bloom, then washing and drying. Because of that fermentation process, it has a very characteristic sour taste, mixed with bitterness, the coffee water when brewed will be light brown and clear like amber. In particular, Arabica coffee grown in different geographical regions has some unique flavors, the higher the geographical area is grown and harvested, the better the coffee taste.
Based on some characteristics, people divide Arabica coffee into 4 types: Bourbon, Typica, Moka, Catimor.
In particular, Bourbon, Typica, Moka are classified as “primitive”, because these 3 coffee varieties are very old, close but not hybrid, but keep the same coffee strain since it was discovered until now. It is because of such primitives that these three varieties of coffee, although very tasty, have very poor yields and are susceptible to pests. Previously, in Vietnam, all three varieties of coffee were grown, but then they were cut down because of the lack of economic efficiency.
The most prominent of these three Arabica coffee lines is Moka coffee, a coffee variety originating from Yeman, this is the type of coffee with the most rigorous growing and harvesting conditions and so the taste of Moka coffee is also evaluated as a type of coffee. The most delicious, the sexiest in the world. Across our country, only the Cau Dat area can grow this famous high-class Moka Cau Dat coffee variety. However, farming is very difficult, so now the production of Moka coffee in Vietnam is insignificant.
In addition to the group of 3 “original” coffees mentioned above, there are also Catimor varieties that are classified and grouped separately because this is a coffee variety that has undergone crossbreeding of two varieties Caturra and Timor (Timor is a hybrid of the Robusta line with Arabica). . Thanks to that, Catimor is the best Arabica coffee variety, both ensuring productivity because it is easy to grow, resistant to pests and diseases, high yield, but still retains the typical Arabica taste and great economic value. Close to Catimor there is also Catuai, which is also a delicious and productive Arabica coffee variety.
- Culi coffee beans.
Exactly, Culi coffee beans are not a type of coffee like the above classification, this is just a name to classify fresh coffee beans typical of both Arabica and Robusta varieties.
Café Culi (café Bi – peaberry) is the mutated coffee beans in countless normal coffee beans. Among the countless Robusta coffee beans, Arabica coffee with 2 beans in one fruit will appear mutated coffee beans with only a single bean with a very low mutation rate, only about 5%. These coffee berries will be separated during the separate harvesting and handling process. Because these mutant coffee beans contain exceptionally high amounts of caffeine, they will offer different flavors and aromas, often more bitter, fatter, richer, and long-lasting bitterness.
For example, Culi Robusta coffee beans will have a stronger bitter taste than regular Robusta coffee, the coffee water when brewed will have a wavy brown color with a light aroma. As for Culi Arabica coffee, it has a unique sour taste and intense aroma that is clearer than regular Arabica coffee.
However, Culi coffee is a mutant form of common coffee varieties, so the output is very low, the value is also very high.
- Cherry coffee beans.
Cherry coffee beans, also known as jackfruit coffee, are a special coffee variety that is extremely productive, takes very little care, has strong resistance to pests and diseases, is extremely drought tolerant, even without watering. may still have the finished product. Despite such outstanding advantages, cherry coffee is not popular because its characteristic flavor is sour, less bitter than coffee.
Café Cherry has 2 main varieties: Liberica and Exelsa. Cherry coffee beans have a very beautiful and characteristic shiny yellow color, when brewed, they have a pleasant faint smell and a characteristic sour taste that creates a refreshing feeling. The sour taste, less bitterness and gentle aroma make this coffee a very suitable coffee for women.
In fact, Cherry coffee is grown very limited due to low demand, often Cherry coffee beans are mixed with Robusta, Arabica to increase aroma, increase sourness and reduce bitterness depending on the needs of the drinker.
In addition, Cherry coffee is also used as a grafting source to pair with Robusta coffee, both taking advantage of the pest resistance, drought tolerance, yield of this coffee variety and keeping the typical delicious taste of coffee. Robusta coffee.